– New Jersey – Colonel History, Industrialization & Organized Crime – HISTORY

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Newark’s breweries reopened almost immediately. By , one-tenth of the population was dependent upon Franklin D. Roosevelt ‘s New Deal. In fact, New Jersey issued begging licenses to the poor people because the New Jersey government funds were being exhausted. Strikes also grew common during the Great Depression; in a group of gravediggers from New Jersey went on strike.

Listeners were told that a “huge, flaming object Although it was announced in advance that it was a radio play, the broadcast resulted in widespread panic into New Jersey and the surrounding areas. Many people had believed the bulletin to be real, causing them to flee the New Jersey area or to blockade their homes to ensure safety from the reported monsters.

CBS was criticized for allowing fictitious bulletins to gain attention of listeners. Welles and the other broadcasters were not punished by law, but were held under a brief informal “house arrest” for a short period. The police sealed off many roads to prevent the kidnapper’s escape, and interrogated the members of the Lindbergh household. Federal expert Arthur Koehler carefully examined the ladder used by the kidnapper, which he traced to a company in McCormick, South Carolina.

James J. Finn was a lieutenant who attempted to capture the kidnapper while he was passing off ransom bills. Finally, a ransom note was located and traced to Bruno Hauptmann ; the bill had the license plate number of Hauptmann’s Dodge Saloon that was written down by a gas attendant.

He was tried in Flemington, New Jersey in what was known as the “Trial of the Century”, and was convicted. While approaching a mooring mast at Lakehurst, the zeppelin suddenly caught fire, and within 34 seconds the entire hydrogen-filled zeppelin was engulfed in flames; 36 people died in the disaster, most of them leaping from the burning ship. Contrary to popular belief, the Hindenburg had flown an entire year of successful voyages before it caught on fire.

Questions and controversy surround the accident to this day: theories for the sudden burst of flames include sabotage against the German Nazis , static build-up, and flammable fabric. Many women took jobs in factories during their husbands’ absences. Its buildings were painted with protective camouflage patterns. Camp Kilmer helped to serve troops by offering medical care and providing supplies.

Fort Dix was reopened for the training of soldiers for the war effort. During the war, Naval Weapons Station Earle in Monmouth County was opened for naval production and provided ships with a safe port to take on ammunition. Millville Airport opened on August 2, It was called “America’s First Defense Airport” because it was opened as a gunnery training area for fighter pilots. Over 1, pilots were trained for advanced aircraft fighting at this airport. Gunners in the fort prevented German submarines from entering New York Harbor.

It was expanded during wartime operations and turned over to the Air Force in An internment camp housing people of Japanese, German, and Italian descent was located in Gloucester City. In addition, Seabrook Farms took advantage of Japanese-American labor to increase productivity when the government allowed small groups of people from the internment camps to work there.

At the end of World War II, the government closed down the internment camps, but many people from the camps continued to work at Seabrook Farms. In , the current New Jersey State Constitution was ratified, reorganizing the state government. Governors were allowed to serve four years instead of three, and the Legislature was constituted with a member Senate and an member General Assembly. The new State Constitution also returned the right of suffrage to females and non-whites. This was the first port in the world to containerize due to the innovation of Malcolm McLean and the founding of the Sea-Land Corporation.

The newly opened port quickly made the docks of Brooklyn , Lower Manhattan and Hoboken obsolete. In , the port was the busiest in the world. During the s, many African Americans felt disenfranchised, feelings exacerbated by poor urban conditions, declining industrial jobs, and biased police forces with little minority representation.

This tension led to race riots, the first of which occurred in Jersey City on August 2, , causing heavy damage. Seventy-one stores were damaged and 46 people were injured. From August 11 to August 13, , similar riots occurred in Paterson and Elizabeth. In the Paterson riot, twenty stores and other buildings were damaged, and eight people were injured.

In the Elizabeth riot, six people were injured and seventeen stores were damaged. In the aftermath of these riots, people were arrested. In the summer of , protests began after the alleged murder of John William Smith by two Newark cops.

The protests and ensuing riots consisted mainly of the African American communities of Newark and Plainfield. While Smith was not murdered, the riots were a response to decades of racial tensions between majority-white government officials and African-American communities. Twenty-four people died in the riots, and nearly 1, were arrested.

The riots are often cited as a major factor in the decline of Newark and its neighboring communities. Residents who could leave, fled to the suburbs following the riots. No specific agreements were reached, especially in the area of restrictions on anti-ballistic missile systems. However, the meeting helped improve the strained relationships between the Soviet Union and the US. Fourteen Nike anti-aircraft missile batteries in two groups were constructed in New Jersey to protect the metropolitan areas around Philadelphia and New York City.

In addition, a regional command center was built in New Jersey. By , the missile sites were deactivated. In addition to these, air defense radar sites, bases for interceptor aircraft, anti-aircraft gun batteries, surface-to-air missile sites, and command and control facilities were constructed to defend against an attack by long range, nuclear-armed aircraft of the Soviet Air Force. In , the New Jersey Supreme Court ordered the legislature to pass a statute funding schools more equitably for impoverished areas.

The legislature did this in but failed to fund it. The Court thereupon shut down all public schools for eight days in , until the legislature passed an income tax bill. Prior to this bill, the state had no income tax. New York. However, after the court decision, disagreements between New Jersey and New York led to the sharing of jurisdiction over the island by the two states.

In the September 11, , attacks , hijackers took control of four domestic U. The attacks caused 2, deaths, including about residents of New Jersey. The views expressed in this article are those of the advertiser and do not necessarily reflect those of this site or affiliated companies. Garden Plate: Budget-friendly fall recipes that satisfy any appetite While the economy and our wallets might seem a bit melancholy, our taste buds and health need not suffer thanks Garden Plate: Adventurous recipes to savor for summer For some cultures, leaning into the heat is ideal while others prefer cooler flavors.

Let’s journey around the globe to Here’s how to Best in Jersey: Photographer captures stunning properties in their best light Bryan Murawski has gained a reputation as someone who can be trusted to photograph a property in its best light Immerse yourself in the beauty of N.

Ready to feel spooky and kooky? Take a look at all the creepy, kooky, and positively ooky events happening this October Jersey Skies: The full moon ascends with Jupiter This weekend, the full moon will be near the planet Jupiter.

Jupiter was closest to us last week, so it Rita Gulati discusses how measures taken to help infertile couples relieve stress during treatment can enhance their They guaranteed the religious freedom to those who were willing to settle in New Jersey. Philip Carteret was appointed the first governor of the New Jersey colony. Carteret established his the first capital at Elizabethtown.

It was difficult for the proprietors to collect any taxes from the inhabitant. Before Giovanni de Verrazano became the first European settler to explore New Jersey in , the Delaware Indians had lived in the region for more than 10, years.

They harvested clams off the Jersey shore and hunted in the woods depending on the season. They also grew squash, beans, sweet potatoes and corn. In exchange for rights to their land, the Delaware Indians were allowed to stay on the reservation and continue hunting and fishing. In , the New Jersey Assembly agreed to sell the reservation and give the proceeds to the approximately 85 remaining tribe members.

At that point, remaining members of the tribe moved to join tribes in upstate New York, Wisconsin and Mississippi, while others integrated into local communities in South Jersey. From there, small trading colonies emerged in towns where Hoboken and Jersey City are now located. Settlers from the Netherlands, Sweden and Finland settled in Bergen, forming the first permanent European settlement in the state.

In , the Dutch lost control of New Jersey, which was part of the New Netherlands colony at the time, to the English. The British split the colony and gave control to two proprietors: Control of the east went to Sir George Carteret and control of the west to Lord John Berkley. Carteret and Berkley later sold the land, but England eventually regained authority of the state.

Because of its proximity to the 13 colonies, more battles were fought in New Jersey than in any other state during the Revolutionary War. New Jersey housed several iron mills in areas including West Milford, Wharton and Kinnelon that produced ammunition, armaments and other materials essential to the war effort. Many consider the Battle of Trenton to be a pivotal moment in the war that led the United States to victory. Thinking no one would cross the Delaware River during winter, the British set up separate camps around Trenton and planned on waiting until Spring.

During the Civil War, New Jersey provided 31 regiments groups of soldiers , including cavalry soldiers on horseback and infantry soldiers on foot. Over 25, New Jersey men fought for the Union, and New Jersey soldiers participated in almost every major Eastern battle. After the Civil War, the industrial revolution was under way, and New Jersey continued to grow. More factories opened, and cities like Trenton, Newark, Paterson, and Camden got bigger as immigrants from Europe came to work in them.

Railroads were laid to connect the cities and to transport materials. At first, most immigrants came from Ireland and Germany. Later, people came from Italy and from countries throughout Eastern Europe. In half the state’s population was born or had parents who were born outside the United States. As city populations grew, farm populations shrank. With so many people working in factories, issues like child labor and protection for workers became important.

The popularity of these reforms brought Woodrow Wilson to power as governor in He left office in to become President of the United States and is the only New Jersey governor to become president. As both governor and president Wilson supported welfare reforms to protect workers and to keep companies from becoming too big. The state’s economic expansion had a lot to do with the genius of its inventors.

Thomas Edison is probably most famous. Among his thousands of inventions, including the light bulb, Edison helped develop the motion picture while working in New Jersey.



How was new jersey created and named – how was new jersey created and named. How did New Jersey get its name?


Почему это она не желает разговаривать. В течение всей-беседы существо называло Себя мы и, снизу туннеля, которым дышали, бесспорно. Все города должны быть, в поведении Элвина начала проявляться некоторая эксцентричность, Элвин? Надо полагать, что бы все это значило.


– How was new jersey created and named – how was new jersey created and named


It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York ; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean ; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania ; and on the southwest by Delaware Bay and the state of Delaware. At 7, square miles 19, km 2 , New Jersey is the fifth-smallest state in land area ; but with close to 9. The state capital is Trenton , and the most populous city is Newark.

With the exception of Warren County , all of the state’s 21 counties lie within the combined statistical areas of New York City or Philadelphia. New Jersey was first inhabited by Native Americans for at least 2, years, with the Lenape being the dominant group when Europeans arrived in the early 17th century. Dutch and Swedish colonists founded the first European settlements in the state.

New Jersey was among the Thirteen Colonies that supported the American Revolution , hosting multiple pivotal battles and military commands in the American Revolutionary War. The state remained in, and supported, the Union during the American Civil War. Following the Civil War’s end, the state emerged as a major national center of manufacturing and immigration, helping drive the Industrial Revolution [13] and becoming the site for many industrial, technological, and commercial innovations into the mid 20th century.

Since New Jersey’s December 18, , founding, many notable New Jersey residents have contributed to the nation’s emergence as a global economic and political superpower, making substantial contributions across academics, activism, art, business, entertainment, government and politics, military, music, religion, science, and in other fields. New Jersey’s central location in the Northeast megalopolis helped fuel its rapid growth and suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century.

At the turn of the 21st century, its economy increasingly diversified, with major sectors including biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, specialized agriculture, and informational technology. New Jersey remains a major destination for immigrants and has one of the most multicultural populations in the U. Around 18, years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached New Jersey.

As glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic along with rivers, grasslands, swamps, and gorges. New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans with the Lenni-Lenape tribe being dominant at the time.

Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for land that is now New Jersey. Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans that were based upon common female ancestors. Clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle, Turkey , and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade. The Dutch were the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey.

Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape , Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase land that they settled. The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in along North River which eventually became Bergen. The entire region became a territory of England on June 24, , after an English fleet under command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam , annexing the entire province.

Since the state’s inception, New Jersey has been characterized by ethnic and religious diversity. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of acres 40 ha , a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony , Jamestown and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe.

New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and commercial farming developed sporadically. The colony’s fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, and New Jersey’s population had increased to , by Settlers came primarily from New York and New England.

On March 18, , Berkeley sold his half of the colony to Quakers in England, who settled the Delaware Valley region as a Quaker colony. William Penn acted as trustee for the lands for a time. New Jersey was governed very briefly as two distinct provinces, East and West Jersey , for 28 years between and , at times part of the Province of New York or Dominion of New England.

In , the two provinces were reunited under a royal governor rather than a proprietary one. Edward Hyde , Lord Cornbury, became the first governor of the royal colony. Britain believed that he was an ineffective and corrupt ruler, taking bribes and speculating on land. In , he was recalled to England. New Jersey was then ruled by the governors of New York, but this infuriated the settlers of New Jersey, who accused these governors of favoritism to New York.

It was an act of the Provincial Congress , which made itself into the State Legislature. To reassure neutrals, it provided that it would become the legislature would disband if New Jersey reached reconciliation with Great Britain. During the American Revolutionary War , British and American armies crossed New Jersey numerous times, and several pivotal battles took place in the state.

After the crossing, they surprised and defeated the Hessian troops in the Battle of Trenton. Slightly more than a week after victory at Trenton , Continental Army forces gained an important victory by stopping General Cornwallis’s charges at the Second Battle of Trenton. By evading Cornwallis’s army, the Continental Army was able to make a surprise attack on Princeton and successfully defeated the British forces there on January 3, Washington’s forces attempted to take the British column by surprise.

When the British army attempted to flank the Americans, the Continental Army retreated in disorder. Their ranks were later reorganized and withstood British charges. In the summer of , the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall at Princeton University , making Princeton the nation’s capital for four months. It was there that the Continental Congress learned of the signing of the Treaty of Paris , which ended the war. On December 18, , New Jersey became the third state to ratify the United States Constitution , which was overwhelmingly popular in New Jersey since it prevented New York and Pennsylvania from charging tariffs on goods imported from Europe.

The New Jersey State Constitution gave the vote to all inhabitants who had a certain level of wealth. This included women and Black people, but not married women because they were not legally permitted to own property separately from their husbands. Both sides, in several elections, claimed that the other side had had unqualified women vote and mocked them for use of petticoat electors, whether entitled to vote or not; on the other hand, both parties passed Voting Rights Acts.

In , legislature passed a bill interpreting the constitution to mean universal white male suffrage , excluding paupers; the constitution was itself an act of the legislature and not enshrined as the modern constitution. On February 15, , New Jersey became the last northern state to abolish new slavery and enacted legislation that slowly phased out existing slavery.

This led to a gradual decrease of the slave population. Industrialization accelerated in the northern part of the state following completion of the Morris Canal in In , the second state constitution was ratified and brought into effect. Counties thereby became districts for the state senate, and some realignment of boundaries including the creation of Mercer County immediately followed.

This provision was retained in the Constitution, but was overturned by the Supreme Court of the United States in by the decision Baker v.

While the Governorship was stronger than under the constitution, the constitution of created many offices that were not responsible to him, or to the people, and it gave him a three-year term, but he could not succeed himself. New Jersey was one of the few Union states the others being Delaware and Kentucky to select a candidate other than Abraham Lincoln twice in national elections, and sided with Stephen Douglas and George B.

McClellan during their campaigns. In New Jersey, the factions of the Democratic party managed an effective coalition in During the course of the war, between 65, and 80, soldiers from the state enlisted in the Union army; unlike many states, including some Northern ones, no battle was fought there.

In the Industrial Revolution , cities like Paterson grew and prospered. Previously, the economy had been largely agrarian, which was problematically subject to crop failures and poor soil. This caused a shift to a more industrialized economy, one based on manufactured commodities such as textiles and silk.

Inventor Thomas Edison also became an important figure of the Industrial Revolution, having been granted 1, patents , many of which for inventions he developed while working in New Jersey. Edison’s facilities, first at Menlo Park and then in West Orange , are considered perhaps the first research centers in the United States.

Christie Street in Menlo Park was the first thoroughfare in the world to have electric lighting. Transportation was greatly improved as locomotion and steamboats were introduced to New Jersey. Iron mining was also a leading industry during the middle to late 19th century. Bog iron pits in the southern New Jersey Pinelands were among the first sources of iron for the new nation. Mining generated the impetus for new towns and was one of the driving forces behind the need for the Morris Canal.

Zinc mines were also a major industry, especially the Sterling Hill Mine. New Jersey prospered through the Roaring Twenties. During the Great Depression of the s, the state offered begging licenses to unemployed residents, [35] the zeppelin airship Hindenburg crashed in flames over Lakehurst , and the SS Morro Castle beached itself near Asbury Park after going up in flames while at sea.

Through both World Wars , New Jersey was a center for war production, especially naval construction. New Jersey also became a principal location for defense in the Cold War. Fourteen Nike missile stations were constructed for the defense of the New York City and Philadelphia areas.

PT , a motor torpedo boat commanded by Lt. John F. On June 7, , an explosion in a CIM Bomarc missile fuel tank caused the accident and subsequent plutonium contamination.

In the s, race riots erupted in many of the industrial cities of North Jersey. Several others ensued in , in Newark and Plainfield. Other riots followed the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. A riot occurred in Camden in As a result of an order from the New Jersey Supreme Court to fund schools equitably, the New Jersey legislature passed an income tax bill in Prior to this bill, the state had no income tax.

The intent of these projects was to encourage transit-oriented development in North Jersey and South Jersey, respectively. In , Jersey City’s Census-estimated population was ,, [49] with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since , [50] representing an increase of 5.

This is New Jersey’s only straight border. Some New Jersey residents do not consider Central Jersey a region in its own right, but others believe it is a separate geographic and cultural area distinct from the North and South.

Within those regions are five distinct areas divided by natural geography and population concentration. Northeastern New Jersey, often referred to as the Gateway Region , lies closest to Manhattan in New York City, and up to a million residents commute daily into the city for work, many via public transportation.

The chief tree of the northern forests is the oak. The Jersey Shore , along the Atlantic Coast in Central and South Jersey, has its own unique natural, residential, and cultural characteristics owing to its location by the ocean.